Spec for AML Vocabularies and AML Dialects

AML Vocabularies 1.0

AML Vocabularies is a mechanism to describe any domain of discourse using familiar YAML syntax and modular documents. AML Vocabularies define a hierarchy of classes and properties according to the semantics of W3C Standard OWL 2 that can be used as the formal foundation for any information processing system.

Vocabulary declaration

AML Vocabularies are declared using the #%Vocabulary 1.0 header. A mandatory base property provides a URI prefix that will be used to generate unique URIs for all terms in the vocabulary.

#%Vocabulary 1.0

vocabulary: amf-validation

base: "http://raml.org/vocabularies/amf-validation#"

Vocabularies can refer to terms in other vocabularies, that can be imported using the uses property.

The AML processor will introduce those terms in the vocabulary graph.

Additionally, vocabularies can refer to terms defined in any other ontology or standard that are defined or identified using URIs. The external property can be used for this. The AML vocabulary parser will not try to process the external reference. It will just build URIs using the external URI prefix and include those URIs in the graph for the vocabulary being edited.

In the following example we are introducing schema.org as an external vocabulary, and then using it to define a schema.org class term:

external:
  schema-org: "http://schema.org/"

classTerms:

  schema-org.Person:

The rest of the vocabulary document consist of two maps: classTerms declaring class terms and propertyTerms declaring property terms.

Property Description
vocabulary Name for the vocabulary
usage? Description of the vocabulary
base URI prefix for the terms in the vocabulary
uses? Property introducing aliases to reuse terms defined in other AML Vocabularies
external? Property introducing aliases for external ontologies/standares

Property terms

Property terms, introduced by the propertyTerms property in the top level document, represent relations between individuals and data types or between individuals of different classes.

Will be defining a data type property for the former, and introducing an object property for the latter.

The range property can be used to define the type of property:

The semantics of data type properties and object properties are provided by the translation into OWL.

The following table shows all the properties that can be used in a property term:

Property Description
displayName? Human readable name for the property term
description? Human readable description of the property term
range? Range of the property relation
extends? Inheritance from other property term

Object properties

This is an example of an object property:


classTerms:

  Profile:

propertyTerms:

  extendsProfile:
    displayName: extends profile
    description: Optional profile this validation is going to inherit from
    range: Profile

That will be translated into the following RDF graph:

base:extendsProfile rdfs:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
  schema-org:name "extends profile" ;
  schema-org:description "Optional profile this validation is going to inherit from" ;
  rdfs:range base:Profile .

Datatype properties

This is an example of a data type property declaration:


propertyTerms:

  ramlClassId:
    displayName: Class ID
    description: A well known string identifier for a vocabulary class
    range: string

With OWL semantics:

base:ramlClassId rdfs:type owl:DatatypeProperty ;
  schema-org:name "Class ID" ;
  schema-org:description "A well known string identifier for a vocabulary class" ;
  rdfs:range xsd:string .

The available data type identifiers and their RDF translation can be found in the following table:

identifier URI
string xsd:string
integer xsd:integer
float xsd:float
boolean xsd:boolean
uri xsd:anyURI
any xsd:anytype

Property inheritance

Properties can hold an inheritance relationship. The extends property is used to express the inheritance relationship. One property term can inherit from multiple property terms. Data type properties cannot inherit from object properties and vice versa. Semantics for inheritance is also provided by OWL semantics as shown in the following example:

propertyTerms:

  vocab.extends:

  extendsProfile:
    displayName: extends profile
    extends: vocab.extends
    range: Profile
base:extendsProfile rdfs:type owl:ObjectProperty ;
  schema-org:name "extends profile"
  rdfs:subPropertyOf vocab:extends ;
  rdfs:range base:Profile .

Consequently for each assertion like:

myProfile base:extendsProfile otherProfile .

The following assertion can be inferred:

myProfile base:extendsProfile otherProfile .
myProfile vocab:extends otherProfile .

Class terms

Class terms represent sets of individuals. They are declared using an identifier and AML Vocabularies will generate a URI identifying the class in a unique way using the prefix provided in the base property of the vocabulary.

The following table shows the properties that can be used to define a class term:

Property Description
displayName? Human readable name for the class term
description? Human readable description of the class term
properties? Properties with this class term in the domain
extends? Inheritance from other class term
classTerm:

  Profile:

The semantics of class terms are provided by the translation into OWL.

base:Profile rdfs:type owl:Class .

Class terms can have an associated description and displayName:

classTerm:

  Profile:
    displayName: Profile
    description: A set of validations that will be applied together over a parsed HTTP data model

The OWL translation for these properties is:

base:Profile schema-org:name "Profile" ;
  schema-org:description "A set of validations that will be applied together over a parsed HTTP data model" .

Class inheritance

Class terms can also inherit from other classes. Multiple classes can be specified in the inheritance relationship.

external:
  shacl: "http://www.w3.org/ns/shacl#"

classTerms:

  Validation:
    extends: shacl.Shape

Semantics of class extensions matches OWL semantics:

base:Validation rdfs:subClassOf shacl:Shape .

Class and property domains

A class can be added to the domain of a property terms using the properties property of a class term definition. The value of properties is a list of propertyTerms that will have this class in the domain. Semantics of the property domain are provided by the OWL translation.

  JSConstraint:
    displayName: JavaScript Constraint
    properties:
      - jsCode
vocab:jsCode rdfs:domain vocab:JSConstraint

The implications of introducing a class in the domain of a property is provided by this assertion, which is based on the previous example:

a vocab:jsCode b .

The following assertion could be inferred:

a vocab:jsCode b .
a rdfs:type vocab:JSConstraint

References